Yesterday afternoon, Barron's TTD Blog made some conclusions based on a Linley Gwennap article. It is likely after the A4 chip progressed to the iPhone 4 after being launched in the iPad, that the A5 chip will do the same. It is widely expected that the dual-core A5 chip will show up in the next iPhone 4S, since many competitors have already upgraded to dual-core processors.
The next chip will likely be dubbed A6 and be a quad-core chip, but may be too much for the iPhone to handle. The next (or a premium version) of the iPad will likely include this A6 quad-core chip in 2012. Gwennap also stated that 33 square millimeters of the A5 chip is "unaccounted extra circuitry" which may leave room to enhance the A5 to the A6 chip for the iPad 3.
Apple has gone to bigger chips than the silicon offered by Nvidia or other vendors because it can get greater performance at the same price. Apple doesn't have to pay the markup that Nvidia or another company would charge which leads to a larger chip for the same money.
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